Causes of male infertility

CAUSES OF MALE INFERTILITY
SPERM PRODUCTION PROBLEM
  • Chromosomal or genetics
  • undescended testes
  • Infections
  • Testicular Torsion
  • Heat
  • Varicocele
  • Medicines and chemical
  • Radiation damage
  • Unknown causes
SPERM TRANSPORT PROBLEM
  • Infections
  • Prostate-related problem
  • Absence of vas deferens
  • Vasectomy
SEXUAL DISORDER
  • Retrograde or premature ejaculation
  • Failure of ejaculation
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Spinal cord injury
  • Prostate surgery
HORMONAL PROBLEM
  • Pituitary tumours
  • Congenital lack of LH / FSH
  • Androgenic steroid abuse
SPERM ANTIBODIES
  • Vasectomy
  • Injury or infection in the epididymis
  • Unknown cause


Azoospermia

Azoospermia is a condition where there is no sperm cells seen in an ejaculate.

Azoospermia can be due to :

a) Production problem (i.e. sperm not produced by testicle)
b) Obstructive problem ( i.e. sperm is produced but there is obstruction in the sperm exit pathway).

Investigations to look for the causes of azoospermia comprise of:

a) Physical examination including examination of the size and consistency of the testes
b) Hormonal blood test measuring blood levels of FSH , LH and testosterone hormones.

In a case of sperm production problem in the testes , the testes may be small and the hormone levels of FSH and LH are elevated. Testosterone level can be low or normal.

In a case of pure obstructive problem, the physical examination and hormone levels are all normal.

However, there is always variations in the clinical and blood tests correlation with the actual cause. Your male fertility specialist will discuss the findings with you.


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